CMRP SEMINAR SERIES Compulsory for CMRP HDR students unless you have class attendance commitments
Date: Friday 18th March 2016 Time: 12.30pm Location: Building 20 Room 5
Title: New Preclinical Models for Advanced Radiotherapy
Presenter: Professor Kevin M. Prise Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AE, UK
Kevin M. Prise is Professor of Radiation Biology and Deputy Director at the Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, UK, where he has been since 2007. Prior to this he was Head of the Cell and Molecular Radiation Biology Group at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood, London. A Biochemistry graduate of Aberdeen University, he has wide ranging interests in radiation biology including low dose, radiation quality and cell signalling mechanisms. His recent studies have been focused on developing new biological based models for optimising advanced radiotherapies such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Particle Therapies. He has over 250 publications and currently leads a multidisciplinary team of scientists and clinicians spanning the physics, biology and clinical radiation research domains.
Abstract: Rapid advances in our understanding of radiation responses, at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels have been driven by the advent of new technological approaches for radiation delivery. In radiotherapy, these have led to the application of complex treatment delivery plans aimed at maximising the conformity of dose to the tumour and minimising normal tissue dose. A major consequence is the production of dose-gradients across tumours and normal tissues as dose is "painted" into the treatment volume. At the level of individual cells within a tumour and in surrounding normal tissues, dose metering occurs both spatially and temporally as part of the overall goal of delivering a uniform dose to the tumour. Despite this, significant heterogeneity of response exists within tumours related to individual radiosensitivity, proliferation, hypoxia and intercellular communication. Our understanding of the biological consequences of radiation is based on a long history of uniform exposures in both in vitro and in vivo models which may not be applicable to current therapeutic schedules . Recent experimental studies have begun to assess in simple cell culture models the consequences of modulation of dose delivery . A key finding had been that alongside direct effects, intercellular bystander signaling plays an important role and new models are now being developed to determine the impact of intercellular communication on cellular response in modulated treatment fields and their relevance to clinical treatments . The advent of small animal radiotherapy platforms will allow be a major development in the testing of these findings.
For protons, significant differences exist between the deliveries of passively and actively scanned clinical beams, both spatially and temporally. Using clinical proton beams at we have been able to compare the biological response of cells to both passively and actively scanned beams and test for differences both within the treatment field and immediately outside. These studies indicate that some of the fundamental determinants of spatial dose distributions observed with clinically relevant photon energies also hold true for protons . Coupled with variable RBE values , this adds significant complexity to biological rationale for targeted ion delivery which needs validating for future utility.
 K.M. Prise and J.M., O'Sullivan, Nature Reviews Cancer, 9, 351 (2009)  K.T., Butterworth, et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 79, 1516 (2011)  S.J. McMahon, et al., PLOSONE, 8, e54526 (2013); Phys Med Biol 57, 4551 (2015)  K.T. Butterworth, et al., Phys Med Biol 57, 6671 (2012)  P. Chaudhary, et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 90, 27 (2014); 0.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.07.2279 (2015) ?
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