Towards Enhancing the Performance of Lithium batteries –Role of Electrolytes and Additives
Dr. Devaraj Shanmukaraj
Associate Research Scientist at CIC EnergiGune, Alava, Spain
Wednesday 1st March
Level 1, AIIM Facility, Innovation Campus
One of the main challenges for the coming decades is the development of new technologies for storage of electrochemical energy. The supply and management of energy are particularly at the centre of our daily concerns and represent a socio-economic priority. The depletion of oil reserves and necessity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, stimulate the development of electric vehicles.
Lithium-ion battery (LIB) seems to be the best choice for electric vehicles, and perhaps for the storage of electricity from wind turbines or photovoltaic cells. Although lithium-ion technology has known remarkable improvements over the last two decades in terms of enhanced energy density, a technological breakthrough seems to be necessary to further increase the energy density, charge rate, safety and longevity. The performance of LIB’s can be improved either by optimizing the electrolyte, or by developing electrode materials.
Lithium batteries use organic electrolytes due to their wide operating voltage. For lithium ion rechargeable batteries, these electrolytes are almost universally based on combinations of linear and cyclic alkyl carbonates. These electrolytes make possible the use of Li as the anodic active component and results in high power and energy density characteristics of the Li ion chemistries.
This presentation will include a brief overview on Lithium batteries and the different electrolytes currently in use. Focus will be on the state of the art graphite compatible electrolytes developed using a new class of glymes called Hindered Glymes (patent pending). Moreover electrolyte additives like Boron Esters (a new family of Boron complexes-patent granted), that can overcome some of the drawbacks of currently employed commercial liquid electrolytes will be discussed. Cathode additives like “Sacrificial Salts” (patent granted), a relatively different approach towards overlithiation for compensating initial charge irreversibility, would also be highlighted. Next steps on developing all solid- state Lithium batteries using polymer electrolytes/cathodes and current research activities on polymer electrolytes at CIC EnergiGune will also be presented.